# AFCAT Exam Syllabus

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## AFCAT Exam Syllabus:

#
**AFCAT Examination Syllabus**

##
**Syllabus for Air Force Common Admission Test (AFCAT):**

**General
Awareness:**

Politics, Current Affairs, Culture, Art, Defence, Basic Science, Civics, Environment, Geography, Sports, History etc.

**Verbal
Ability in English:**

Antonyms, Testing of Vocabulary, Synonyms, Sentence Completion, Error Detection and Comprehension.

**Numerical
Ability:**

Simple Interest, Ratio & Proportion, Percentage, Profit & Loss, Average, Simplification and Decimal Fraction.

**Reasoning
and Military Aptitude Test:**

Verbal Skills and Spatial Ability

##
**Syllabus for Engineering Knowledge Test (EKT):**

**EKT SYLLABUS- GENERAL ENGINEERING**

**1. Modern Physics:** Quantum Mechanics, Electrical Conductivity in Metals, Dielectric and magnetic
properties of materials, Lasers, Super Conductivity and optical fibers.

**2. Chemistry : **Chemical
Energy Sources, Solar Energy, Electrochemical Energy Systems, Battery
Technology, Fuel Cell, Corrosion Science & Control, Metal finishing &
Electroless Plating.

**3. Mathematics :** Differential Calculus, Partial Differentiation, Integral Calculus &
Application, Differential Equation, Vector Calculus & Infinite Series,
Laplace Transform, Vector Integration, Integral Calculus.

**4. Computers :** Computer peripherals, Data Processing, Data storage, Operation Systems,
Networks of an Internets, Algorithms & Flow charts, Computer aided
sketching.

**5. Electrical :** DC Circuits, Electromagnetism, Single phase AC Circuits, Three phase Circuits,
Measuring Instruments, Domestic Wiring, DC Machine Transformer, Synchronous
Generation, Three phase Induction motor.

**6. Electronics :** Semiconductors diodes, Transistor, SCR, Amp & oscillators, OP Amp,
Communication Systems, Number System and Digital Logic.

**7. Mechanical
Engineering :** Energy & Steam, Turbines steam, Gas & Water, Internal
combustion Engines, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, Lathe & Drilling
Machines, Milling & Grinding Machines, Joining Processes, Lubrication &
Bearing , Power Transmission and workshop technologies.

**EKT SYLLABUS – COMPUTER AND ELECTRONICS**

**1. Digital Electronic
Circuits:** Number representation and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating
point),Boolean algebra and minimization of Boolean functions, Logic functions
and logic gates, Minimization, Digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS,
CMOS),Design and synthesis of combinational and sequential circuits,
Combinational Circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers,
Decoders. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters,
shift-registers.

**2. Analog Electronic
Circuits:** Small Signal Equivalent circuits of diodes ,Simple diode
circuits, clipping, clamping, rectifiers, Biasing and bias stability of
transistor and FET amplifiers, Amplifiers, single-and multi-stage amplifiers,
frequency response of amplifiers, Simple op-amp circuits, Sinusoidal
oscillators and criterion for oscillation

**3. Computer Organization
and Architecture:** Machine instructions and addressing modes, Memory
interface, Cache and main memory and Secondary storage. Microprocessor (8085):
architecture and memory organisation.

**4. Operating System: **Processes,
Threads and Inter-process communication, Concurrency, Synchronization and
Deadlock, CPU scheduling, Memory management and virtual memory, File systems
and I/O systems, Protection and security.

**5. Programming and
Data Structures: **Programming in C and similar Structured programming
languages. Functions, Recursion, Parameter passing, Scope, Binding; Abstract
data types, Arrays, Stacks, Queues, Linked Lists, Trees, Binary search trees,
Binary heaps.

**6. Databases:** ER-model, Relational model (relational algebra, tuple calculus), Database
design (integrity constraints, normal forms), Query languages (SQL), File
structures (sequential files, indexing, B and B+ trees), Transactions and
concurrency control.

**7. Computer Networks: **ISO/OSI stack, LAN technologies (Ethernet, Token ring), Flow and error
control techniques, Routing algorithms, Congestion control, TCP/UDP and
sockets, IP(v4), Application layer protocols (icmp, dns, smtp, pop, ftp, http);
Basic concepts of hubs, switches, gateways, and routers. Network security:
basic concepts of public key and private key cryptography, digital signature,
firewalls.

**8. Information
Systems and Software Engineering:** information gathering, requirement and
feasibility analysis, data flow diagrams, process specifications, input/output
design, process life cycle, planning and managing the project, design, coding,
testing, implementation, maintenance.

**EKT SYLLABUS- MECHANICAL**

**1. Engineering
Mechanics :** Equivalent force systems, free-body concepts, equations of
equilibrium, trusses and frames, virtual work and minimum potential energy.
Kinematics and dynamics of particles and rigid bodies, impulse and momentum
(linear and angular), energy methods, central force motion.

**2. Strength of
Materials :** Stress and strain, stress-strain relationship and elastic
constants, Mohr’s circle for plane stress and plane strain, shear force and
bending moment diagrams, bending and shear stresses, deflection of beams
torsion of circular shafts, thin and thick cylinders, Euler’s theory of
columns, strain energy methods, thermal stresses.

**3. Theory of Machines
:** Displacement, velocity and acceleration, analysis of plane mechanisms,
dynamic analysis of slider-crank mechanism, planar cams and followers, gear
tooth profiles, kinematics and design of gears, governors and flywheels,
balancing of reciprocating and rotating masses.

**4. Vibrations :** Free and forced vibration of single degree freedom systems, effect of damping,
vibration isolation, resonance, critical speed of rotors.

**5. Fluid Mechanics:** Fluid properties, fluid statics, manometry, buoyancy -- Control-volume analysis
of mass, momentum and energy, fluid acceleration -- Differential equation of
continuity and momentum -- Bernoulli’s equation -- Viscous flow of
incompressible fluids -- Boundary layer, Elementary turbulent flow -- Flow
through pipes, head losses in pipes, bends etc.

**6. Heat Transfer :** Modes of heat transfer -- One dimensional heat conduction, resistance concept,
electrical analogy, unsteady heat conduction, fins -- Dimensionless parameters
in free and forced convective heat transfer, Various correlations for heat
transfer in flow over flat plates and through pipes -- Thermal boundary layer
-- effect of turbulence -- Radiative heat transfer, black and grey surfaces,
shape factors, network analysis -- Heat exchanger.

**EKT SYLLABUS - ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING**

**1. Networks:** Network graphs: matrices associated with graphs; incidence, fundamental cut set
and fundamental circuit matrices. Solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis.
Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton's maximum power transfer,
Waye-Delta transformation. Steady- state sinusoidal analysis using phasors.
Linear constant coefficient differential equations; time domain analysis of
simple RLC circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplace transform:
frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits. 2-port network parameters: driving
point and transfer functions. State-equations for networks.

**2. Electronic
Devices:** Energy bands in silicon, intrinsic and extrinsic silicon. Carrier
transport in silicon: diffusion current, drift current, mobility, and
resistivity. Generation and recombination of carriers. p-n junction diode,
Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, p-I-n and
avalanche photo diode, Basics of LASERs. Device technology: integrated circuits
fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography,
n-tub, p-tub and twin-tub CMOS process.

**3. Analog Circuits:** Small Signal Equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs, MOSFETs and analog CMOS.
Simple diode circuits, clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias
stability of transistor and FET amplifiers. Amplifiers: single-and multi-stage,
differential and operational, feedback, and power. Frequency response of
amplifiers. Simple op-amp circuits. Filters. Sinusoidal oscillators; criterion
for oscillation; single-transistor and op-amp configurations. Function
generators and wave-shaping circuits, 555 Timers. Power supplies.

**4. Digital circuits:** Boolean algebra, minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC
families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinatorial circuits: arithmetic
circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders, PROMs and PLAs. Sequential
circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Sample and hold
circuits, ADCs, DACs. Semiconductor memories. Microprocessor(8085):
architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.

**5. Signals and
Systems:** Definitions and properties of Laplace transform, continuous-time
and discrete-time Fourier series, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier
Transform, DFT and FFT, z-transform. Sampling theorem. Linear Time-Invariant
(LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; causality, stability, impulse
response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure,
frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Signal transmission through LTI
systems.

**6. Control Systems:** Basic control system components; block diagrammatic description, reduction of
block diagrams. Open-loop and closed-loop (feedback) systems and stability
analysis of these systems. Signal flow graphs and their use in determining
transfer functions of systems; transient and steady state analysis of LTI
control systems and frequency response. Tools and techniques for LTI control
system analysis: root loci, Routh-Hurwitz criterion, Bode and Nyquist plots.
Control system compensators: elements of lead and lag compensation, elements of
Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control. State variable representation
and solution of state equation of LTI control systems.

**7. Communications:** Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density
function, autocorrelation, power spectral density. Analog communication
systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral
analysis of these operations, superheterodyne receivers; elements of hardware,
realizations of analog communication systems; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)
calculations for amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) for
low noise conditions. Fundamentals of information theory and channel capacity
theorem. Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM),
differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), digital modulation schemes:
amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched
filter receivers, bandwidth consideration and probability of error calculations
for these schemes. Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA and GSM.

**8. Electromagnetics:** Elements of vector calculus: divergence and curl; Gauss and Stokes theorems,
Maxwell's equations: differential and integral forms. Wave equation, Poynting
vector. Plane waves: propagation through various media; reflection and
refraction; phase and group velocity; skin depth. Transmission lines:
characteristic impedance; impedance transformation; Smith chart; impedance
matching; S parameters, pulse excitation. Waveguides: modes in rectangular
waveguides; boundary conditions; cut-off frequencies; dispersion relations.
Basics of propagation in dielectric waveguide and optical fibers. Basics of
Antennas: Dipole antennas; radiation pattern; antenna gain.

**EKT SYLLABUS – ELECTRICAL & INSTRUMENTATION
ENGINEERING**

**1. Electrical
Circuits and Fields:** Network graph, KCL, KVL, node/ cut set, mesh/ tie set
analysis, transient response of d.c. and a.c. networks -- sinusoidal
steady-state analysis -- resonance in electrical circuits -- concepts of ideal
voltage and current sources, network theorems, driving point, immittance and
transfer functions of two port networks, elementary concepts of filters --three
phase circuits -- Fourier series and its application -- Gauss theorem, electric
field intensity and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge
distribution, dielectrics, capacitance calculations for simple configurations
-- Ampere's and Biot-Savart's law, inductance calculations for simple
configurations.

**2. Electrical
Machines :** Single phase transformer - equivalent circuit, phasor diagram,
tests, regulation and efficiency -- three phase transformers - connections,
parallel operation -- auto transformer and three-winding transformer -- principles
of energy conversion, windings of rotating machines: D. C. generators and
motors - characteristics, staring and speed control, armature reaction and
commutation -- three phase induction motors -- performance characteristics,
starting and speed control -- single-phase induction motors -- synchronous
generators performance, regulation, parallel operation -- synchronous motors -
starting, characteristics, applications, synchronous condensers -- fractional
horse power motors, permanent magnet and stepper motors.

**3. Control Systems :** Principles of feedback -- transfer function -- block diagrams: Signal flow
graphs. Transient Response --steady-state errors -- stability-Routh and Nyquist
criteria -- Bode plots -- compensation -- root loci -- time delay systems--
phase and gain margin elementary state variable formulation -- state transition
matrix and response for LTI systems. Mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic system
components. Synchro pair, servo and step motors. On off, cascade, P, PI, P-I-D,
feed forward and derivative controller, Fuzzy controllers.

**4. Electrical and
Electronic Measurements :** Transducers, Mechanical Measurement and
Industrial Instrumentation: Resistive, Capacitive, Inductive and piezoelectric
transducers and their signal conditioning. Measurement of displacement,
velocity and acceleration (translational and rotational), force, torque,
vibration and shock. Measurement of pressure, flow, temperature and liquid
level. Measurement of pH, conductivity, viscosity and humidity. Bridges and potentiometers,
PMMC moving iron, dynamometer and induction type instruments -- measurement of
voltage, current, power, energy and power factor -- instrument transformers --
digital voltmeters and multimeters -- phase, time and frequency measurement --
Q-meter, oscilloscopes, potentiometric recorders, error analysis.

**5. Analog and Digital
Electronics :** Analog Electronics: Characteristics of diodes, BJT, FET, SCR
-- amplifiers-biasing, equivalent circuit and frequency response -- oscillators
and feedback amplifiers, operational amplifiers- characteristics and
applications -- simple active filters -- Instrumentation amplifier-- precision
rectifier-- V-to-I and I-to-V converter --oscillators and signal
generators--VCOs and timers.Digital Electronics: Combinational logic circuits,
minimization of Boolean functions. IC families, TTL, MOS and CMOS. Arithmetic circuits.
Comparators, Schmitt trigger, timers and mono-stable multi-vibrator. Sequential
circuits, flip-flops, counters, shift registers. Multiplexer, S/H circuit.
Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog converters. Basics of number system.
Microprocessor applications, memory and input-output interfacing.
Microcontrollers.

**6. Telecommunication
Engineering :** Signals, Systems and Communications: Periodic and aperiodic
signals. Impulse response, transfer function and frequency response of first-
and second order systems. Convolution, correlation and characteristics of
linear time invariant systems. Discrete time system, impulse and frequency
response. Pulse transfer function. IIR and FIR filters. Amplitude and frequency
modulation and demodulation. Sampling theorem, pulse code modulation. Frequency
and time division multiplexing. Amplitude shift keying, frequency shift keying
and pulse shift keying for digital modulation.

**EKT STLLABUS - AE-AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
(MECHANICAL)**

**1. FLIGHT MECHANICS /
AERODYNAMICS :** Atmosphere, standard atmosphere, Properties, Pressure
altitude, density altitude. Classification of aircraft. Airplane (fixed wing
aircraft) configuration and various parts. Bernoulli’s equation, static,
dynamic pressure equivalent, calibrated, indicated air speeds, various
corrections for airspeeds, Equations of equilibrium, work and energy,
Incompressible flow, viscous flows, introduction to Reynolds number, Laminar
turbulent flow, transition, Aerodynamic forces and moments, Lift, drag, centre
of pressure, Primary flight instruments, Altimeter, ASI, VSI, Turn-bank
indicator, gyroscope

**2. THERMODYNAMICS:** Zeroth, First and Second laws of thermodynamics -- Thermodynamic system and
processes -- Irreversibility and availability -- Behaviour of ideal and real
gases, Properties of pure substances, calculation of work and heat Analysis of
thermodynamic cycles related to energy conversion -- Carnot, Rankine, Otto,
Diesel, Brayton and Vapour compression cycles.

**3. ENGINEERING
MATERIALS :** Structure and properties of engineering materials and their
applications, heat treatment, fatigue and creep.

**4. STRUCTURES:** Stress and Strain, Young’s modulus, Poissons ratio, Equations of equilibrium,
strain-displacement relationship, plane stress and strain. Classification of
structures, preliminary, secondary and tertiary , stressed skin,
Characteristics of aircraft structures and materials, torsion, bending and
flexural shear. Flexural shear flow in thin-walled sections. Buckling. Failure
theories. Loads on aircraft. V-n diagram

**5. PROPULSION : **Thermodynamics,
Theory of Aircraft Gas Turbine engines, Brayton cycle, Otto cycle,
Classification of jet propulsion, turboprop, turbojet, turbofan etc., effect of
speed, altitude, temperature etc thrust equation, propeller theory basics. Axial
compressors and turbines, centrifugal pumps and compressors. Aerothermodynamics
of non rotating propulsion components: Intakes, combustor and nozzle, Elements
of rocket propulsion.

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